This project is developed in order to engrain the new system of urban ore recycling in order to produce energy and to be able to use the derived products. This project was worked out by team of LLC "Research and production company "Energia"" and it allows to recycle (and to destroy) organic substances by the means of low temperature (t 600-700oC) high speed pyrolysis.
The project makes it possible to solve the problem of living and production waste destruction on the base of ecologically safe (friendly) technology and also to get energy and products useful for the further exploitation at the end of the process.
The project allows to receive high profits and to recover value effectively.
Nowadays there is the spontaneous pollution of great territories around the world. So it is very important to create the special technology to clean urban and rural territories, ground, forest areas from illegal waste dumps as soon as possible. This can prevent from dangerous dumps, which are often burned, and so a lot of toxic substances usually get into the atmosphere, ground and water.
Different kinds of urban ore, such as mixture of paper, glass, food remnants, plastic, rubber, metal and so on. Nowadays the preliminary assortment of such waste in Russia is practically impossible, because it is very complicated. The direct recycling or incineration of the huge amounts of waste can cause different ecological problems and is not effective. So we need a fast solution of the urban ore problem, we need an efficient and ecologically safe system of recycling it and simultaneously receiving useful products at the end of the cycle.
There are two main ways of recycling urban ore. The first one is mechanical-biological and the second one is thermal.
The mechanical-biological method includes waste composting after the preliminary assortment.
Mechanical - biological methods include: waste composting, drying and waste compaction for its ecologically safe disposal on special landfills; waste assortment (mainly performed by people), distribution of such waste (glass, metals, polymers, paper) for enterprises recycling recoverable materials.
Thermal methods include: waste incineration (mainly of its paper components), which is performed on the facilities with gratings and in fireboxes with fluidized bed; pyrolysis (high temperature (more then 600 oC) breakdown of wastes without access of oxygen in running tube furnaces with receiving of low-temperature coke and combustion gas); waste gasification which allows reforming of its organic part to synthesis gas; thermal methods, which combine low-temperature carbonization with further burning.
After analyzing these methods you will see, that they can not be realized during the nearest years in Russia. The main reasons for it are the low productivity of the waste recycling enterprises, high material and financial costs, absence of trained people in the this aria, high value of treatment plants and little probability of getting high profits.
The main conclusion that should be made after such analysis is the following: the systems of recycling, which are effective in Western Europe can not be used in Russia, because the waste situation in Russia now is very complicated and desolate.
Urban ore classification.
There are a lot of ways to classify urban ore.
The first characteristic of urban ore is different qualitative composition. And the groups of urban ore are paper (paperboard), edible by-product, wood, ferrous metals, nonferrous metals, textiles, bones, glass, cutis and rubber, stones, polymer materials, other compounds, sieving (little fragments, which can be taken through the 1.5-cm strainer).
Dangerous kinds of urban ore are wasted batteries and acculators, appliances, varnish, colors and cosmetics, fertilizers, household chemistry, medical waste, mercury containing thermometers, barometers, tonometers, lamps.
Some kinds of waste (for example, medical, varnish, colors) can get to surface or underground water through canalization. Batteries and mercury containing instruments will be safe for people only still their frames are not damaged. Otherwise mercury, lye, lead and other substances can easily spoil the environment.
Household rubbish consists of a lot of different compounds, its composition is very complicated, also its density is little and it is able to rot.
They can be divided into several groups according to their influence on the environment:
The main part of all production waste every year consists of unreactive solid waste and the least part consists of production toxic urban ore.
The ways of urban ore destruction, spread all over the world are thermal destruction and disposal. There can be used biotechnologies in order to recycle waste into compost (fertilizers). These technologies also allow recycling urban ore into so-called biogas. The effective recycling of urban ore is their assortment in order to separate useful particles with further treatment.
You can see the main methods of urban ore utilization in Table 1.
Various ways of utilization in different countries,%
From Table1 you can easily understand, that incineration as the way of urban ore utilization is widely spread only in some European countries and Japan. The main method still is dumping.
Incineration allows to reduce waste volume by a tenth, and also to use the energy appeared after the incineration. Moreover this method allows to decrease water and ground pollution, but air is still polluted in spite of different filters.
When you use classic technologies you get a lot of hard dangerous waste which needs disposal, and also there is atmosphere pollution.
The difference between the technology of THERMAL SHOCK and traditional technologies.
With our technology of thermal shock (high speed low temperature pyrolysis) the ecologic problems will be completely solved.
This technology supposes that the process of urban ore recycling contains several modules. Preliminary sorted and milled material is firstly dried (without loss of water, which is collected, refined and then used during the work of the factory), and then it goes through oxygenation and pyrolysis with getting useful products - high-energy pyrolysis gas and valuable coal-like residue -which can be used as raw material for fertilizer companies and for building industry.
The fist assortment of useful second-hand materials.
The urban ore recycling begins with the organization of the system of collecting and delivering waste.
Thoroughly organized assortment allows to reduce the quantity of waste and harmful influence on the environment and to receive useful compounds. Tables 2 and 3 illustrate the composition of two sectors: living and production.
The average morphological and particle urban ore composition in living sector.
(Figures by the Academy of communal services)
Approximate production waste composition
There should be performed the following modernization of sanitary cleaning of cities: waste received from production and living sectors should be separated. This measure will allow to involve production waste into large-scale technologically safe assortment in order to get valuable products.
In many countries there is the practice of selective collection of urban ore (glass, metal, paper and so on) from people. This measure can prevent from the situation when some valuable substances get into urban ore. Moreover there is a selection of dangerous for people waste (for example, batteries and lamps).
Nowadays in our country practically there is now any waste selection and it is very hard to organize it (because people are not ready for it, there is no special techniques etc.) However assortment and waste collection is an actual problem. The selective collection of waste containing different quantity of valuable substances can optimize the assortment technology substantially.
The factor for assortment technique to be rentable is orientation on the assortment of waste containing valuable substances because the income received after second-hand materials realization exceeds the assortment costs for more then 12%. If the valuable production outcome will be about 30% (of the input one) and the productivity of the devise no less then 35000 tons a year the pay-off period will be 2 years.
The production waste makes 30-40% of the whole city urban ore. And the effectiveness of such waste assortment is higher than the effectiveness of living sector waste assortment.
Unlike all other the kinds of recycling production urban ore assortment is rentable (even without fee for services). In Table 4 you can see the market price of sorted valuable urban ore elements, which are ready for sale.
Selected useful waste components
(for the factory recycling urban ore with productivity 50000 tons a year)
*Prices 2005 г. (Moscow and Moscow district).
The kinds of assortment line technique include downward and horizontal assembly lines, screen, assortment cabin, electromagnetic metal separators, automatic press for second-hand materials baling, press for metals, automatic loaders and so on. The project involves integrated supply of European technique, which combines effectiveness, wearing quality and reasonable prices.
Urban ore assortment production demands the hangar with floor space 30 50 m2 and 12 m high.
The energy consumption on the assortment production - capacity 73 kW, the average demand 47kW an hour.
26 workers (2 shifts 13 workers) and 3 engineers are necessary.
The average number of working days a year = 300, work is organized into 2 shifts a day.
The assortment production leaves the main part (about 70%) of input waste not recycled. To this not recycled waste large-sized waste (furniture, matrasses), which works out 3% of all urban ore, should be added. Large-sized waste and large urban ore fragments should be milled into pieces of 250 mm size, after the milling the fragments go into further recycling. The energy consumption of the mill - 240 kW. The working regime is 300 days a year, one shift a day.
General characteristic of technological system of urban ore recycling after the preliminary assortment.
Urban ore goes to the block of waste reception after the preliminary stage of radiation control and analysis. After that waste is milled and recycled using practically waste-free technology, which allows to receive ecologically safe pyrolysis products: high-caloric pyrolysis gas, coal-like residue. Water, "driven away" from initial waste is used in production process.
This scheme allows to combine high ecological indicators with high energetic efficiency. Technology is built according module scheme, this allows to adapt fast to different quantity of recycled waste, changes in their composition. Module scheme allows to develop waste recycling production step by step. Also there can be used different elements of production complete set. For example, for photogenic organic waste (straw, wood etc.) there can be used only the module of pyrolysis (without additional apparatus for inorganic substances oxidation).
In the following paragraph it is described the production of recycling 50000 tons of urban ore a year. Module scheme allows to set up productions with different productivities by the means of collecting the necessary number of technical modules. The following variant can be changed according to the situation in particular town.
The factory of urban ore recycling using the technology of THERMAL SHOCK with reception of pyrolysis gas, industrial water and solid residue.
The ecological characteristics of the facility, which is the technological core of the factory.
Pyrolysis apparatus allows to recycle such organic waste, which can damage the ecology after being recycled with any other means of utilization.
For example urban ore is often simply burned, and as a result a lot of dangerous substances get to the atmosphere. Pyrolysis apparatus fully excludes it. Recycling using THERMAL SHOCK technology leads to reduction of initial waste by a tenth and more, and this allows to cut down the cost of dumping of wastes on the shooting ranges.
The use of the products of pyrolysis (steam, pyrolysis gas, solid residue) is safe for the environment.
The THERMAL SHOCK technology is ecologically clear and safe.
Technology of THERMAL SHOCK which is the base of pyrolysis apparatus can be used in the aria of recycling of organic waste (including polymers and polymer compositions), among them waste wood recycling, recycling of plant industry products, organic containing raw materials, also production and household waste. It will be useful in chemical, wood manufacturing , oil refining industries, heat-power engineering and other industries. The technology is licensed.
The essence of the THERMAL SHOCK is in momentary (with the speed about 104 degree/sec) heating of the substances to the boundaries of its existence in condensate form. In addition there is stagewise extraction of the substance from the initial blend:
After the approach of conditions of recycled substances to the conditions of its existence in condensed phase intermolecular interaction becomes negligibly small, gaseous phase forms without absorption of boiling heat, and there is water "boil-off".
The unicity, originality of the facility is in using of THERMAL SHOCK technology for thermal processing of organic substances - its gasification with reception of steam at the first step and pyrolysis gas and coal-like residue at the second step.
The examples of effective using of THERMAL SHOCK technology:
Recycling, utilization, gasification of practically any organic reticulate materials:
The economic advantages of the facility:
Technologic and energetic efficiency:
The process is notable for high technologic and energetic efficiency and allows to save thermal energy for 30% in comparison with the best ways of drying and gasification.
THERMAL SHOCK technology allows:
1) to receive steam practically without spending of building heat;
2) to separate steam at the first stage of the process so there is the ability to bleed it to the consumers (in any other methods steam can not be used, it goes to the atmosphere).
The use of the steam:
Steam has the temperature about 300oC and later on can be used: 1) as a coolant, for example, in boiler or in self-supporting heat transfer device and water heater of superficial and mixing type; 2) as an energy carrier, for example, in steam turbine plant. Unlike other waste utilization technologies, the technology of THERMAL SHOCK not to lose but to use steam in production processes.
The application of pyrolysis gas:
The advantages of pyrolysis gas:
a) high caloricity (4500-5000kkal/m3),
b) absence of azote and its oxides NOX (the absence of azote in pyrolysis gas is explained by the fact that air is eliminated during the pyrolysis process because the process takes place in vacuum)
Caloricity of coal-like residue is 7000kkal/m3. Depending on the material residue is formed from (mainly organic or inorganic substances), after the proper modification it can be used fin fertilizer and constructing industries.
The scheme of urban ore recycling system.
The process description:
At the beginning of the process in the assortment block large waste is separated from the whole mass of urban ore, then this waste is divided into waste with predominantly organic substances and waste with predominantly inorganic substances.
Inorganic large waste goes to the scrap grinder, where it is divided into pieces, the size is determined by charging appliance of oxidation camera. After the oxidation camera waste is connected with inorganic materials of the main stream and goes to the further recycling according to the well-known technologies. Large waste mainly containing organic substances (plastic, wood etc.) after the crude milling (in scrap grinder) gets to the main stream of waste recycling. Left after the large waste removing organic and inorganic waste gets to the block of scrap grinder, after that it gets to the heating camera (the temperature in the heating camera is about 200oС and higher).Temperature in camera is determined by conditions of water and other relatively easy boiled substances expulsation.
After the heating camera waste gets to pyrolysis reactor, where it is heated to the temperature of 650-700oС at once. This temperature allows to organize high speed pyrolysis of organic substances with forming of solid and gas products. In the heating camera and thermal shock reactor the processes are performed without access of air.
Urban ore containing also inorganic substances after the reactor gets to solid phase collector and then to the separation block, where more light (in density) organic residue is separated from inorganic. Organic residue represented by coal-like residue is dried and directed to further exploitation.
Inorganic residue gets to the oxidation camera, where the last part of organic substances are removed. To the inorganic residue of main stream of waste (after oxidation camera) inorganic residue received from large waste (after the assortment block and the oxidation camera) is added.
Left after the oxidation camera inorganic residue containing compositions of metals, glass etc., is directed to melting, sharing and recycled into useful products with well-known technologies.
The content of inorganic residue is usually less then 19% of initial urban ore.
Received on different stages gas fractions are directed to refining and partly condensation with separation of useful products. The rest gas is divided into components and/or it is used after-burning. After that gas is refined and outputted. According the ecological demands the facility can contain the block of absorption of the main part of CO2.
Received after the recycling products are determined by the composition of initial urban ore and the wills of the client.
If urban ore contains radioactive compositions they should be controlled at the beginning of the process (waste) and at the end of the process (products). The residual radioactive part of waste should be buried.
Due to the substantial fluctuations of initial urban ore composition great attention should be paid to controlling and regulating systems (services)
The advantages of the process:
The apparatus for oxidation (destruction) of organoelemental and organic substances
The process of slow oxidation (not incineration) of organic substances allows to destroy organic and organoelemental substances including condensed aromatic compositions containing haloids.
The periodical process of urban ore oxidation (in contradistinction with usual process of incineration) is performed in apparatus with oxygen (air) in soft conditions: temperature is about 650oC, pressure 1-1.5 atm, time of the cycle 10-15 min. During oxidation with air the volume of the apparatus increases for a fifth (according the content of azote). Due to low temperature during the process dioxins practically are not formed. The periodicity of the process allows to control the output substances and to avoid emission of ecologically dangerous substances into environment.
Gaseous products of oxidation after the catalyzer on the base of copper compounds contain water, ecologically clear gases (CO2, N2) and/or gases used in further production processes (for example, HCI). If waste apart from C, H, N, O and haloids contains other elements (for example, metals) they get into feet mostly in the form of oxides. The composition of output products is agreed. For example, CO2 can be transformed into Na2CO3. This method firstly was developed for elementary analysis of "hardly burning" substances (substances which can be hardly chemically analyzed) and only afterwards was used for waste destruction. There were no found any substances which can not be analyzed with this method. Accuracy of the analysis of any elements (C, H, N) is lower then 0.3%.
The advantages of the process:
Using of the facility to oxidation (destruction) of organoelemental substances allows to neutralize dangerous substances contained in solid phase and to prepare solid residue to deponation or further exploitation (for example, as construction materials for pavement).
The description of the process:
Pyrolysis apparatus for water distillation.
Reception of industrial water.
Undistilled water is preliminary heated to practically boiling temperature. At this stage the compounds contained in water and having boiling temperatures lower than water are removed. If initial water does not contain harmful substances the preliminary heating anyway is desirable in order to reduce the range of high-speed heating.
After the removal of easily volatile substances water is directed to the reactor, where it is heated to the temperature of thermal shock (about 375oC). Substances which are dissolved in water but having higher boiling temperature do not manage to vaporize and get to the block of admixtures separation. Later on sals and high boiling temperature substances are directed either to recycling or to dumping.
Received steam is cooled vaporizing additional quantity of water and is directed according technological aims. The characteristics of steam should be modified according technological process demands.
The efficiency of facility increases if the warmth got during the steam cooling and condensation is used in the working process.
Main advantages of the process:
The importance of the last advantage increases if it is necessary to work with water of changing composition, for example with temporary waters.
Water distillation facilities based on the high speed pyrolysis technologies allows to use received from urban ore water in technological aims (as the recirculating water for preliminary urban ore heating), and also for other production objectives if it is necessary.
Comparison of the thermal shock technology with other existing analogues.
Developed by LLC "Research and production company "Energia" waste recycling technology - the technology of momentary pyrolysis - is characterized by using the process scheme providing the highest energetic efficiency in comparison with any other alternative technologies. The speed of the process is so high (about and not less then 104oC/sec) that it allows to gasify practically every organic substances with reception of high-caloric pyrolysis gas (the analogue of natural gas in application properties), hot steam (which is not lost during the process of organic recycling, but collected and used during the technological process).Moreover the technology allows to reduce the volume of initial waste for a tenth and more. Coal-like residue - another product of thermal shock technology - contains (according to the kind of initial waste) valuable and sometimes rare components. From all the kinds of organic materials brown coal is of the main concern, because it is cheap raw material, concentrated with rare earth metals: gallium, germanium, vanadium, lanthanum, cerium etc.
The substantial increase of energetic efficiency in comparison with well-known gasification technologies is due to the fact, that the facility works autonomously (excluding the short initial period, when it is necessary to bring energy from outside). In whole the facility uses 15-25% of produced energy.
The technology of thermal shock allows to increase energetic efficiency and ecological safety of waste recycling production.
The indicators of pollutants emission.
The technological process provides correspondence of emission of pollutants with effluent gases with Directive 2000/76/EC European Parliament and European Community [DIRECTIVE 2000/76/EC OF THE EUROPEAN PARLIAMENT AND COUNCIL OF 4 December 2000 on the incineration of waste (OJ L 332, 28.12.2000, p. 91)
Corrigendum OJ L 145, 31.5.2001, p. 52 (2000/76/EC)
Gaseous products of oxidation after the catalyzer based on copper compounds contain water, ecologically clear gases (CO2,N2) and/or used in further production gases, for example HCI. If waste apart from C, H, N, O and haloids contain other elements, for The technology allows to perform elementary analysis of elementary analysis of "hardly burning" substances (substances which can be hardly chemically analyzed) and it is successfully used for waste destruction. There were no found any substances which can not be analyzed with this method. Accuracy of the analysis of any elements (C, H, N) is lower then 0.3%.
Also it is necessary to mention that output gas cleanliness is provided not by traditional gas-cleaning systems, but due to the unique cleaning arrangement - catalyzer based on copper compounds - which provides falling out into ash (coal-like) residue of practically all dangerous substances with the efficiency not less then 98,4. Thermal shock technology provides practically zero cinder with gas emission. high quality of organic pyrolysis (in pyrolysis reactor) and oxidation of inorganic substances (in oxidation reactor) provides practically zero concentration of organic polluters.
Elimination of drying stage (with losses of water) and using of steam in technological process.
Characteristic of urban ore elements as fuel is presented in the following table:
Urban ore caloricity (the lowest burning heat energy) 7,57 GJ/t .
Due to high content of food waste and water in the whole composition of urban ore, the preliminary caloricity of waste is not high. The wetness of urban ore fluctuates from 20 to 60%. The existing system of waste collection always leads to its wetting by atmospherial condensation. But the existing ways of urban ore drying can not be accepted as efficient, because in this way water is lost. Thermal shock technology allows to "dry away" as large quantity of water as possible without its losing, so we get water back and can use it during the production process.
Also it should be noticed that the system of water purification, which is included in supply order, allows to bring water to sanitary norms and to use it not only as industrial water but also as drinking water after the proper modifications.
The use of the coal-like residue
As it was said higher, coal-like residue represents ash of black (brown) color and can be used later on. For example, recycled inorganic substances (coal-like residue) is used in building industry (in construction of pavements), organic substances are used as valuable fertilizers, containing mineral substances. Moreover from brown coal it can be produced ash residue with very high (to 10%) content of rare-earth metals.
Production for ash residue modification can be created after urban ore recycling production will reach the rated capacity.
General layout of the urban ore recycling factory and the arrangement of the main inventory.
The factory of urban ore recycling is situated on the territory of 2,1 ha. The volume of urban ore that can be recycled is 50 000 t a year. The size of the territory allows to perform further extension.
The main building is organized according the block and module principle. It consists of the modules (urban ore recycling facilities with productivity of 2 t/hour, also 5 modules which provide determined rated capacity of 50000 tons a year), laboratories, radiation control centers, administrative buildings. If it is necessary to increase productivity of the factory, the arrangement is expanded due to creation of additional modules.
Every module consists of 2 inorganic oxidation facilities (for mainly inorganic substances), thermal shock reactor (for mainly organic components of urban ore pyrolysis). Moreover, at the beginning of the recycling circle there is urban ore selection and after that its milling. Water in the camera of preliminary drying goes to the collector, after that to the third facility of this cycle, to purification. Water is used for heating facilities. If it is necessary water can be directed to consumers.
If for the first stage of facility work it is necessary to bring autonomous (not main) electric energy, then in the complex there should be generator and transformer. Completed with oxidation and pyrolysis reactors there should be copper catalyzation (fine purification) camera. The facility is also completed with smoke exhauster, ventilator and chimney flue. Laboratory is completed with necessary analytical instrumentation. Gases from reactors which have high temperature about 500oC, before being sent to chimney flue, is directed to the drying camera where its warmth is used for urban ore drying to the wetness not more then 20%. The main building is completed with hoisting machines and approach roads necessary for mounting and repair of apparatuses.
From the tankage oxygen or/and air are directed to inorganic substances oxidation camera.
The main building is completed with the facility of removal of coal-like residue (ash) (assembly line transportation) into the collector, which is situated outside factory territory. Ash is first kept in collector, and then is used for building materials production or modified.
During urban ore reception dustcarts come through radiation control. Bunkers of urban ore reception block are rated at 2 days reception. In reception block urban ore comes through assortment, milling and are directed through assembly lines to the main building for utilization.
The factory is supplied with circulating water, received from urban ore. So it is involved the system of water purification situated on the territory of the factory.
On the territory of urban ore utilization factory there is the administrative building for personnel.
According to local conditions and space for the factory the suggested relative position of inventory, buildings can be changed.
Technological scheme of the process:
1. Urban ore is supplied to the factory with dumptrucks and are directed to radiation control. After the primary selection of valuable components (till 30% of the whole volume of preliminary urban ore), its pressing and briquetting.
2. On the assortment line there is selection (by hand on the assembly line) mainly inorganic and mainly organic materials (urban ore).
3. Two millings perform urban ore milling according to two groups of utilization: oxidation (for inorganic substances) and pyrolysis (for organic substances).
4. For the bunker of preliminary keeping milled waste are directed to the heating camera (or drying camera), where there is the water stripping, which is used in further technological process.
5. From the heating camera waste is directed to bunker of loading.
6. From the loading bunker waste is directed to reactor.
Work of reactors happens permanently.
7. From the reactor pyrolysis gas goes to consumers by pipeline and it can be burned for steam boiler heating or it can be packaged into balloons with volume of 50 litres. Pyrolysis gas is also used during the work of the urban ore recycling system - it is used 15-20% of gas.
8. Distilled water is directed to the purification system. Before this water goes through heat-transfer devices which are connected with heating and drying cameras.
9. Coal-like residue is directed to the collector and for further using (or modification).
Technical and economic assessment of the project.
Project payback: 2,5 years from the beginning of factory work
Project cost: 6'000'000 Euro
Finance suggestions: attracted investments
The received effect: sanitary condition of the town and ecologic situation get better, substantial (by more then tenth) decrease of the costs for dumping of wastes and liquidation of ecological aftermaths of waste keeping, substantial (by more then tenth) slowdown of extension of earth surface for landfills of waste dumping, reception of useful products (pyrolysis gas, hot water and coal-like residue) and so income increases after these products are sold.
Situation, main domicile, legal form and the type of ownership.
Created factory will be situated on the territory of polygon or in industrial area of the city. Suggested by the client place for the factory should meet all the requirements of the suggested project - not far from the suggested place there should be landfill, also it is necessary to supply energy by the main lines, there should be the space for factory arrangement, convenient approach ways etc. The legal form should be private company (or other form) with authorized fund in particular agreed percentage ratio.
As the space for high-tech line of urban ore utilization it is recommended to choose industrial or other site, which territory can be till 2 ha (minimum site is 0,4 ha). This is due to the fact that the factory with productivity 50000 tons a year will consist of 5 modules (complexes) which can work autonomously and built stepwise. On the territory surrounded by a concrete fence there should be:
The project site should be situated in the industrial part of landfill. Sanitary zone around the factory is over 500m and it allows to set up the production without contradiction with SES demands.
Main stages of the project
Realization of the project includes the following main stage:
Economic, social and political factors
The using of the most efficient urban ore recycling process line at scales of the town will allow to:
The description of urban ore recycling complexes
The final products are:
Nowadays in Russia practically there is no any high-tech industry of production and domestic utilization. Existing facilities can not recycle domestic waste, because its volume reached about 262 kg per capita a year and constantly continues to grow. Urban ore utilization complex by the means of THERMAL SHOCK technology allows performing practically 100% utilization of waste without any environment pollution.
Calculation of profits and payback
Profits from selling the products of urban ore recycling:
The following calculation is true for one module with productivity of 2 tons an hour (10000 tons a year). In the concluding part there are figures for complex consisting of 5 modules for the productivity of the factory equal to 50000 tons a year.
Hot steam (t 300 oC)
recycling of initial materials per day:
2 tons х 16 hours= 32 tons a day
32 tons х 40% (average volume of waste content in initial materials) = 12,80 tons
12,80 tons х 36 rubles (average value of water cubic meter) = 460,80 rubles
460,80 х 300 working days = 138'240 rubles
For its production needs complex uses 20% of steam so the profits of selling the superfluity of steam to consumers will be 110'592 rubles (3'072 euro).
High-caloric pyrolysis gas (caloricity 4500-5000 kkal/m3 against 1500-2000 kkal/m3 of generator gas) recycling of initial material per day:
2 tons х 16 hours = 32 tons a day
32 tons х 50% (the average volume of pyrolysis organic substances in initial materials) = 16 tons
16 000 kg х 0,80 (coefficient of transformation of kg into liters for gas) = 12'800 liters
12'800 х 4,8 rubles (average value of a liter of prepackaged generator gas) = 61'440 rubles
61'440 rubles х 300 working days = 18'432'000 rubles
For its needs complex uses 20% of gas so the profits of selling the superfluity of gas to consumers will be 14'745'600 rubles (409'600 euro).
2 tons х 16 hours = 32 tons a day
32 tons х 10% (average volume of inorganic substances in initial waste, which forms coal-like residue) = 3,2 tons
3,2 tons х 300 rubles = 960 rubles
960 rubles х 300 working days = 288'000 rubles (8'000 euro)
The value of production of the factory with productivity of 50000 tons a year (if we include in production scheme the assortment) is presented in Table 4.
On an average the realization of useful components selected on the first stage of urban ore selection, will increase the profits of 17'077'600 rubles (474'378 euro) a year.
The factory fully secures its technologies in warmth, steam, practically completely secures itself in electric energy. If it is necessary (by agreement with local administration) it can be bleeding of excessive steam to consumers.
The structural constituent of urban ore recycling are presented in the following table:
The expenses for urban ore recycling (self-cost of urban ore) a year will make up:
50.000 tons х 6,10 euro = 305000 euro
Main technical and economic indexes of the enterprise with productivity of 50'000 tons a year recycling urban ore by the means of high-speed pyrolysis
Stepwise putting of the factory into operation.
Rated capacity of the factory is 50000 tons a year. The process of putting into operation can be performed step-by-step due o the module principle of organization. The increase of capacity starts from 10000 a year and then it will be 20000, 30000, 40000, 50000 tons a year. Module scheme is very convenient also because investments are made gradually, and some of them begin to pay its way during the putting into operation of 2,3, etc. turns.
For villages and small towns it will be preferred small capacity of the factory, so the high expenses for maintenance of high capacity factories will not be a great problem for local budget.
This project is cost-effective from the viewpoint of technology which is the base of factory production process.
The payback period of the project is 2,5 years. Taking into account internal rate of return equal to 40%, small dependence of local fluctuations on the market of urban ore recycling and unforeseen administrative problems, this project is attractive for investing in present-day conditions and has minimal investment risk.
Building of the factory both in large and small towns, villages will entirely solve the most important municipal problems, such as:
This project as any other one demands making decisions in different arias: strategic
However even now it is clear that realization of this project by combined forces of municipal organizations and private capital allows to solve long-lived and burning problem of urban ore utilization with minimal financial costs, investment risks and with absence of environment pollution.